A. Smart Cities
• Streetlights dim is based on ambient conditions to save energy costs.
• Real-time updates for passengers via smart devices or display board.
• Self-driving autonomous vehicles enabling increased safety, reduced CO2 emissions, more leisure, and work time for motorists.
• Smart traffic lights using cameras at every signal, increasing average speed in the city.
• Street cameras reduce crime and enable faster emergency response times.
• Pay-as-you-drive car insurance charges users according to driving behavior and can enable substantial savings for drivers.
• Students do not need to carry heavy books in a backpack. All school materials are loaded on the smart device.
• From the same smart device, you can connect to classmates and teachers to share knowledge and work collaboratively.
• Self-directed learning enables adults to address their skills gaps and engage in lifelong learning at a click of a button.
• Management meetings are fact-based and use real-time data to make informed decisions.
• Proximity is no longer a challenge, cutting-edge video conferences enable easy communications
• When there is a purchase, the closest production factory to the customer is alerted and the customized item is created and delivered with minimum delay, avoiding inventories and keeping the client satisfied
• Some items can be produced at home, using a 3D printer.
• Refrigerators let you known when you are short of groceries.
• Your “smart” umbrella lets you know it would rain.
D. Crowd control
• A crowd control application will allow relevant authorities to estimate the number of people gathering at event sites and determine if necessary actions need to be taken during an emergency.
• Using location-based technologies such as cellular, WiFi, and GPS, the application will generate virtual “heat maps” of crowds.
• These maps can be combined with sensor information obtained from street cameras, motion sensors, and officers on patrol to evaluate the impact of the crowded areas.
• Emergency vehicles can also be informed of the best possible routes to take, using information from real-time traffic sensor data, to avoid being stuck among the crowds.
E. Intelligent Lampposts
• The intelligent streetlamp is a network of street lamps that are tied together in a WAN that can be controlled and monitored from a central point, by the city or a third party.
• It captures data such as ambient temperature, visibility, rain, GPS location, and traffic density which can be fed into applications to manage road maintenance operations, traffic management, and vicinity mapping.
F. Retail and Supply Chain
• In the retail sector, shopping assistant applications can be used to locate appropriate items for shoppers and provide recommendations of products based on consumer preferences.
• The application can reside in the shopper’s personal mobile devices such as tablets and phones, and provide shopping recommendations based on the profile and current mood of the shopper.
• Using context-aware computing services, the application captures data feeds such as promotions, locations of products, and types of stores, either from the malls’ websites or open API if the mall allows it.
• Using the dynamic ordering tool, the network of smart objects will identify the types of commodities and decompose the order picking process to distributed sub-tasks based on area divisions. The application will plan the delivery routes centrally.
1) Elderly Family Member Monitoring
• This application creates freedom for the elderly to move around safely outdoors, with family members being able to monitor their whereabouts.
2) Continuous and Remote Patient Monitoring
• Continuous and remote patient monitoring requires the use of medical body sensors to monitor vital body conditions such as heartbeat, temperature, and sugar levels. The application examines the current state of the patient’s health for any abnormalities and can predict if the patient is going to encounter any health problems.
3) Smart Pills
• Smart pills are essentially ingestible sensors that are swallowed and can record various physiological measures.
4) Tracking of medical items and information gathering
• Tracking of drugs from manufacturer to patient.
• Tracking of hospital equipment and instruments.
• Restriction of staff access and control of cross-infection.
• Advance telemetry of inbound patient clinical data to the hospital.
• Lifestyle and fitness monitoring as part of the wellness program.
a) Special Needs and Elderly Transportation Assistant
• The transportation assistant application serves to address the group of commuters with special needs and who require assistance as they commute using public transportation.
b) Accident Avoidance Detection
• The promise of IoT enhancing life for individuals and society has been shown in small-scale projects, such as the addition of GM OnStar to GM’s cars. This automatically detects when the car has been in a collision, calls for assistance, and provides emergency services with the location.
• Vehicles can play a part in providing better road safety by monitoring and sensing each other on the roads.
• Monitoring traffic jams through the cell phones of the users and deployment of intelligent transport systems (ITS) will make the transportation of goods and people more efficient.
• Transportation companies would become more efficient in packing containers since the containers can self-scan and weigh themselves. The use of IoT technologies for managing passenger luggage in airports and airline operations will enable automated tracking and sorting, increased per-bag read rates, and increased security.
I. Energy and Utilities Management
a. Facilities Energy Management
• Facilities energy management involves the use of a combination of advanced metering and IT and operational technology (OT) that is capable of tracking, reporting, and alerting operational staff in real-time or near real-time.
b. Home Energy Management/Consumer Energy Management
• Home energy management (HEM) optimizes residential energy consumption and production.
• With the integration of data, customers can understand their bills better, and energy companies can relate better with customers and give better advice using facts gathered from user data.
J. Logistics Industry
• Logistics companies are tapping on traffic patterns, road congestions information from road cameras and sensors, and early knowledge of weather conditions to make constant routing adjustments for their delivery trips. This cross-domain information helps them increase their delivery efficiencies and reduce overall congestion costs.
K. Wildlife Conservation
• One innovative IoT solution is connecting endangered black rhinoceroses in eastern and central Africa to this global network. Each is given an ankle collar that relays movement and exact geolocation data back to anti-poaching teams that can quickly act if poaching is suspected.
L. Nomadic Farming
• IoT can help a Fulani or Maasai herdsman track the movement of his cattle in real-time, from the comfort of his hastily-erected hut, through his mobile phone. He can then call up a weather application, which gives him advice on where the best grazing area is, and where to water his livestock.
• While miles away, agricultural officials huddle over a screen to keep track of the movement of nomadic communities and can make a quick call to community elders if they sense that conflict can take place when two herding groups meet. Danger can thus be avoided.
M. Aerospace and Aviation Industry
• IoT can help to improve the safety and security of products and services by reliably identifying counterfeit products and elements. Aviation authorities report that at least 28 accidents or incidents in the United States have been caused by counterfeits. It is possible to solve this problem by introducing electronic pedigrees for certain categories of aircraft parts, which document their origin and safety-critical events during their lifecycle (e.g., modifications). In this way, the safety and operational reliability of aircraft can be significantly improved.
N. Pharmaceutical industry
• Drug tracking and e-pedigrees allow for the detection of counterfeit products and keep the supply chain free of fraudsters.
• The smart labels on the drugs can also directly benefit patients, e.g. by enabling storing of the package insert, informing consumers of dosages and expiration dates, and assuring the authenticity of the medication.
• In conjunction with a smart medicine cabinet that reads information transmitted by the drug labels, patients can be reminded to take their medicine at appropriate intervals and patient compliance can be monitored.
O. Petroleum Industry
• IoT can help in reducing the number of accidents in the oil and gas industry by equipping the containers of hazardous chemicals with intelligent wireless sensor nodes.
• Wireless monitoring of petroleum personnel in critical onshore and offshore operations, container tracking, tracking of drill string components pipes, monitoring and managing of fixed equipment, etc. P. Agriculture and Breeding
• With the application of identification systems, animal diseases can be controlled, surveyed, and prevented. Official identification of animals in national, intracommunity, and international commerce is already in place, while at the same time, identification of livestock that is vaccinated or tested under official disease control or eradication is also possible. Blood and tissue specimens can be accurately identified, and the health status of herds, regions, and countries can be certified by using IoT.
• With the Internet of Things, single farmers may be able to deliver the crops directly to the consumers not only in a small region like in direct marketing or shops but in a wider area. This will change the whole supply chain which is mainly in the hand of large companies now to a more direct, shorter chain between producers and consumers.
P. Insurance industry
• If insurance clients are willing to accept electronic recorders in their car, which are able to record acceleration, speed, and other parameters, and communicate this information to their insurer, they are likely to get a cheaper rate or premium. The insurer can save money by being involved in a very early stage of an impending accident and can trigger the most economic actions.
• IoT and wireless technologies can be used to advance the efficiency and effectiveness of numerous important city and national environmental programs, including the monitoring of vehicle emissions to help supervise air quality, the collection of recyclable materials, the reuse of packaging resources and electronic parts, and the disposal of electronic waste (RFID used to identify electronic subcomponents of PCs, mobile phones, and other consumer electronics products to increase the reuse of these parts and reduce e-waste).
• To fight against terrorist groups African armies can use connected Drones to get images of the field with low risk for soldiers. There are drones of all sizes, types, characteristics, and color. A drone with a connected camera and a large wide range can send thousands of images of a dangerous field.
• The same drone can also be used for internal surveillance against security threats such as kidnapping, pipeline vandalism, armed robbery, violent riots, etc. In Natural parks, poaching can be fought by connecting localization devices on species like Rhinoceros and elephants.
Manufacturers can gain a competitive advantage by using production-line monitoring to enable proactive maintenance on equipment when sensors detect an impending failure. Sensors can actually measure when production output is compromised. With the help of sensor alerts, manufacturers can quickly check equipment for the accuracy or remove it from production until it is repaired. This allows companies to reduce operating costs, get better uptime, and improve asset performance management.
The automotive industry stands to realize significant advantages from the use of IoT applications. In addition to the benefits of applying IoT to production lines, sensors can detect impending equipment failure in vehicles already on the road and can alert the driver with details and recommendations. Thanks to aggregated information gathered by IoT-based applications, automotive manufacturers and suppliers can learn more about how to keep cars running and car owners informed.